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                            PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE DEFENSE 101
 Are planned operations that convey selected information and
indicators to foreign target audiences (TAs) to influence their emotions,
motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately, the behavior of foreign
governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of all
PSYOP is to create in neutral, friendly, or hostile foreign groups the
emotions, attitudes, or desired behavior that support the achievement of
U.S. national objectives and the military mission. In doing so, PSYOP
influence not only policy and decisions, but also the ability to govern, the
ability to command, the will to fight, the will to obey, and the will to
support. The combination of PSYOP products and actions create in the
selected TAs a behavior that supports U.S. national policy objectives and
the theater commander’s intentions at the strategic, operational, and
tactical levels.

1-5. Information operations (IO) are actions taken to influence adversary
information and information systems while defending one’s own information
and information systems. IO are conducted at all levels of war, across all
phases of an operation, and across the conflict spectrum. PSYOP function not
only as an integral capability of IO but also as a leverage for IO activities and
capabilities. PSYOP are, therefore, a user of IO capabilities and technologies
and a contributor to the overall IO effort of the supported command.

​ Assesses the friendly and enemy PSYOP situation, current
propaganda, and PSYOP potential.
• Recommends the types and sizes of PSYOP forces to deploy and
determines support requirements.
• Writes PSYOP supporting plans, PSYOP estimate of the situation, and
other documents, as required.
• Evaluates the mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support
available—time available and civil considerations (METT-TC) and the
particular needs for PSYOP forces.
• Evaluates printing needs, in-country supplies, and possible printing
facilities and other assets.
• Evaluates audiovisual requirements to determine broadcast needs,
locations, frequency availability, ranges, and other requirements.
• Evaluates bandwidth capability and availability and communications
capabilities to implement reachback.
• Determines and coordinates all communication requirements for
PSYOP forces.
• Conducts initial analysis.
• Conducts rapid deployment.
• Serves, when directed, as the advanced echelon (ADVON) for follow-on
PSYOP forces. 


D-11. With the focus on the TA, several research methods and procedures
may be used to collect pertinent facts and data on the TA. As mentioned
earlier, grouping the audience is important since the more specific they are,
the greater the potential impact for the product. This information may
also prove useful as it helps to develop relevant messages and to identify
the media channels most likely to reach audience members. Although groups
are the preferred PSYOP TAs, individuals may also be selected for targeting
new behavior.
D-12. PSYOP doctrine indicates that TAA is vital to understand what the TA
perceives as barriers to change, the role of significant social pressure groups,
and the cost to change behavior.
D-13. Culture needs special attention—culture is the set of shared meanings
by which people understand their world and make sense of their own
behavior and that of others. An important part of developing viable messages
is an understanding of the culture of the TA that is being reached. Culture
affects how people respond to messages communicated through various
channels, such as mass media, community events, and face-to-face
encounters. Incorporating cultural sensitivity and effectiveness, and
using images, symbols, and language, will create an information flow that is
viewed and accepted as part of the culture. The line of persuasion needs to
appeal to what is important to the TA and clearly indicate the benefits of the
new behavior.
D-14. Culture incorporates the shared values, traditions, norms, customs,
arts, history, and institutions of a people. Culture shapes how people see
their world and structure their community and family life. Culture also 

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